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[养猪] 如何更好地管理妊娠母猪栏(上)

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发表于 2019-4-2 11:19:10 | 只看该作者 |只看大图 回帖奖励 |倒序浏览 |阅读模式

How to make sure that all aspects of breeding are performed at an optimal level. Danish breeding company DanBred composed a 6-chapter manual in which every aspect, from quarantine to post-farrowing is described in detail. To give an idea, Pig Progress presents 1 chapter of the manual: gestation management.

丹麦育种公司丹育(DanBred)编写了一本育种手册,共有六章,涵盖了从检疫到分娩的方方面面,以期让育种的每一个环节发挥最佳作用。本文选取了其中一章以作介绍:妊娠管理。

During gestation it is important that the sows’ nutrient requirements for foetus production, restoration of body condition and udder growth are met through balanced feeding. The goal is to make sure the sows achieve an optimum body condition, so they are in good shape for farrowing and the nursing period that follows. And to achieve this, it may be necessary to adjust individual feed rations for sows which are either too thin or too fat.

在妊娠期间,很重要的一点是,通过均衡饮食满足母猪对胎儿生产、身体状况恢复和乳房生长的营养需求。目的是确保母猪拥有最佳体况,从而在分娩及后续哺乳期处于良好状况。为了达到这一目标,可能有必要针对个别过瘦或过胖的母猪调整其饲料比例。

5 days after mating, the implantation period starts. Lasting between 3 and 4 weeks, this is when the fertilised eggs form the placenta and it has an enormous impact on the litter size. Because of this, sows and gilts should not be moved around, re-grouped or be exposed to anything that could be stressful during the first 4 weeks after mating, as this could result in smaller litters.

交配5天后,着床期开始。持续3-4周,期间受精卵形成胎盘,这对窝产仔数有重大影响。因此,在交配后的前四周内,不该让母猪和后备母猪四处走动、重新混群或者接触任何可能造成应激的东西,这些可能会导致窝产仔数减少。

It is a good idea to put sows and gilts into a vaccination programme, made in collaboration with the herd veterinarian, to reduce the risk of reproductive diseases spreading through the herd.

把母猪及后备母猪纳入与兽医合作制定的疫苗接种计划是一个减少生殖疾病在猪群中传播风险的好主意。



Both with and without dietary fibres in the gestation feed, it can be an advantage to provide straw on the side in order to ensure full and calm sows. Photo: DanBred

妊娠饲料中不管有没有添加膳食纤维,在猪舍一旁提供稻草都有好处,可以让母猪饱腹并保持平静。

Everyday tasks in the gestation unit include:
· The inspection of all animals at least once a day to check for any signs of disease;
· Between 4 and 6 weeks after mating, all sows and gilts should be tested for pregnancy.

妊娠栏的日常工作:

每天至少对所有猪进行一次检查,查看是否有任何疾病迹象;

配种后4-6周,所有母猪及后备母猪都应进行验孕。

Figure 1 – Scaling of sows.

图1—母猪身材比例



Gestation control

妊娠控制

Regular testing of all mated animals for pregnancy presents an insight into the overall fertility of the herd. And because of that, it is possible to quickly identify empty sows which can be mated again, or culled, regular pregnancy testing will reduce the overall number of non-productive days.

定期对所有已配种的母猪进行怀孕测试,可以了解整个猪群的生育能力。正因为如此,才有可能迅速判断可以再次配种或淘汰的空怀母猪,定期验孕可以减少总体非生产天数。

It is a good idea to heat control the sows with a teaser boar every day from day 19 to day 28 after mating. Some sows experience a prolonged return interval, so it is important to do heat control for a few more days. It is best to carry out heat control during a quiet time of the day using an experienced and active boar – and if possible, using different boars.

配种后19-28天,利用性成熟公猪诱导母猪发情是个好方法。有些母猪返情时间较长,因此多花几天进行公猪诱情很重要。公猪诱情最好在一天中安静的时候进行,使用经验丰富、精力精力充沛的公猪,如果可能的话,还可以用不同的公猪。

Pregnancy control, carried out with an ultrasound scanner, will have to start on day 28 until day 42. It is vital to make sure every single sow is scanned.

从第28天开始至第42天,应用超声波扫描仪进行妊娠检查,至关重要的一点是确保每头母猪都进行了B超检测。



Adjusting feed in the gestation unit is highly dependent on the feed systems, however feed curves and routines should be similar regardless of system. Photo: DanBred

妊娠栏的饲料调节取决于饲喂系统,但无论哪种系统,饲料曲线及程序都是相似的。

When there is any doubt about the result of a scan, it is a good idea to mark the sow, in order to scan her again within a week. Should the sow remain empty, the animal has to be marked and moved to the mating unit – or be prepared for culling.

如果扫描结果有任何问题,最好在这头猪身上做标记,以便在一周内进行复查。如果仍是空怀状态,应该做好标记并转到配种栏,或准备淘汰。

Pregnancy control is an important part of the herd operation – and so are due care and proper registration of the results. It is the best way of finding and eliminating the cause of mistakes and hidden diseases.

妊娠检测是猪群管理中的重要环节,适当的护理以及对结果做恰当的登记也很重要。这是发现并消除差错或隐疾的根源的最好办法。

Figure 2 – Feed curves for sows during gestation.

图2—妊娠期母猪饲料曲线



来源:Pig Progress
作者:Anders Due Haahr Pedersen

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(文/爱猪网记者刘坤颖编译,爱猪网原创,转载请注明出处)

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